Ayurveda and Six Indian Philosophies | Dr Franklin's Ayurveda center
We find the roots of Ayurveda theories in the Indian philosophy.Based on that, Ayurveda also explains the life, birth, re-birth, death and all other aspects of life.The main orthodox schools of Indian philosophy are those codified during the medieval period and they take the ancient Vedas (the oldest sacred texts of Hinduism) as their source and sacred authority.
Samkhya is the oldest of the orthodox philosophical systems and was propounded by sage Kapila. It postulates that everything in reality stems from purusha (self or soul) and prakrithi (matter, creative agency, energy). It is almost an atheist philosophy.
Yoga school, as expounded by sage Patanjali in Yoga Sutras, accepts the Samkhya psychology and metaphysics, but is more theistic than Samkhya. The relatively brief Yoga Sutras are divided into ashtanga (eight limbs), reminiscent of Buddhism’s Noble Eightfold Path, the goal being to quiet one’s mind and achieve kaivalya (detachment).
Nyaya School is based on the Nyaya Sutras and expounded by sage Gauthama. Its methodology is based on a system of logic that has subsequently been adopted by the majority of the Indian schools of philosophy, in much the same way as Aristotelian logic has influenced Western philosophy. Its followers believe that obtaining valid knowledge (the four sources of which are perception, inference, comparison and testimony) is the only way to gain release from suffering. Nyaya developed several criteria by which the knowledge thus obtained was to be considered valid or invalid (equivalent in some ways to Western analytic philosophy)
Vaisheshika School was found by sage Kanada. It is atomist and pluralist in nature. The basis of the philosophy is that all objects in the physical universe are reducible to a finite number of atoms and Brahman is regarded as the fundamental force that causes consciousness in these atoms. The Vaisheshika and Nyaya schools eventually merged because of their closely related metaphysical theories (although Vaisheshika only accepted perception and inference as sources of valid knowledge).
5) Purva Mimamsa
Purva Mimamsa School is founded by sage Jaimini, and tries to interpret and establish the authority of the Vedas. It requires unquestionable faith in the Vedas and the regular performance of the Vedic fire-sacrifices to sustain all the activity of the universe.
The Vedanta or Uthara Mimamsa expounded by sage Badarayana concentrates on the philosophical teachings of the Upanishads (mystic or spiritual contemplations within the Vedas) rather than the Brahmanas (instructions for ritual and sacrifice).